Sanitation in Emergencies

Sat, Jan 6, 2018
Latrines Ventilated improved pit latrine watsan
#emergency sanitation

Presentation transcript:

1 Austrian RC in Batagram (Pakistan) EQ Operation Day 4: Sanitation in Emergencies RDRT WatSan Training

2 Objective 1.Become a sanitation engineer?? 2.Understand what is sanitation 3.Understand how to select the right option for excreta disposal 4.Be familiar with different technical options for excreta disposal in emergencies 5.Be familiar with the Emergency Response Equipment for sanitation 6.Construct an emergency latrine!

3 Sanitation in Emergency 1.Excreta disposal 2.Solid waste management 3.Waste water management (drainage)

4 What is dangerous about faeces? Primary sanitary barriers  Toilets  Hand-washing (critical times)  Water treatment and water handling  Food hygiene

5 Pathogen Die Off Time in faeces

6 How do we do excreta disposal in a emergency? Rapid assessment & planning design Implementation: 1st phase - Immediate action In-depth assessment & planning design Implementation: 2 nd phase - medium term action Monitoring

7 Sphere Standards and Indicators SPHERE standard 1: access to and numbers of toilets People have sufficient numbers of toilets, sufficiently close to their dwellings to allow them rapid, safe and acceptable access at all times of the day and night.

8 Sphere Standards and Indicators SPHERE standard 2: design and construction People have access to toilets which are designed, constructed and maintained in such a way as to be comfortable, hygienic and safe to use.

9 Selection Criteria  Number of people using latrine and location of people  Communal or family  Elderly/disabled population  Design life: - will population move?  Space  Comfort and community desires  Tradition of latrine use in community  Privacy  Use of water/reuse of faeces - availability of water?  Anal cleansing material (amount of water used)  Menstruation  Availability of local materials and tools

10 Selection Criteria (cont.)  Pit size V = (NxSxD) + 0.5 m of free space x A N = number of users; S = Sludge accumulation (m 3 /person/year); D= design life (years) A= pit-base area (m 2 )  Groundwater  Not all designs suitable for high groundwater  Usually 99% of pathogens destroyed within 2m of unlined pit in unconsolidated soils if above water table  If in saturated zone then contamination spread is HORIZONTAL (usually) up to 15m  Soil conditions  Soil stability  Influence if a pit or soak pit is possible to excavate  Watch for effects throughout the seasons  Infiltration rate

11 Selection Criteria (cont.)  Siting  Communal latrines good distance (30m) away from dwellings and down wind if possible  Family latrines near to dwelling (5m)  Away from water sources (see groundwater)  Avoid depressions, water courses that might run with water  DISCUSS with community  Space for additional latrines  Safety and accessibility ( Lighting, Location, Distance, Screening, Design - separate M/W/Children - )  Operation and maintenance  Construction of hand washing facilities  Time constraints  Financial constraints  Human Resources

12 Technical options Immediate action 1st phase Acute emergency Open defecation fields Shallow trench latrines Deep trench latrine Shallow family latrines Bucket latrine Packet latrine Chemical toilets Control free defecation Communal facilities Community consultation Medium term action 2 nd phase stabilized emergency Simple pit latrine VIP latrine Pour-flush latrines EcoSan (Ecological Sanitation) Borehole latrine Septic tanks Family facilities Community participation disaster 4-6 weeks1-6 months

13 Latrine components - basics Privacy and dignity Roof is essential in areas with high rainfall Door / spiral-shaped entrance < 1 m2 is recommended Frame: timber, PVC pipe, Fitted with plastic sheeting, local materials User’s involvement in design Superstructure Support weight of a person Easy to clean Prefabricated or manufactured locally Concrete, wood, ferrocement or plastic Slab Pit 1 m across and 3 m deep (minimum 0.9 m diameter) Best shape: circular The top 0.5 m of a pit should be always lined (but depend of soil) Different pit lining material: locally available

14 Communal or Family? Family facilities: Usually designed and built by the users (with or without designs, tools and materials provided by others). They may be used by several families. The latrine belongs to the family / ies. Communal facilities: Managed by the community as a shared resource (market, school, etc.). The facility belong to the community.

15 Sanitation Ladder


17 Shallow trench latrine

18 Deep trench latrine

19 Pit latrine and VIP

20 Pour-Flush latrine

26 Exercise - latrine design In your group think about the positive and negative aspects of this design (10 min) Source: OXFAM. Photographer: Saira Raza

27 Which one would you use?

28 Operation and Maintenance  Cleaning: Supervision + Equipment + Training  Communal latrines: Need for employing some members to clean and maintain  Ownership: Involving population in design, siting, construction, maintenance, etc. Family latrines  Cleaning materials: cleaning kit (disinfectants, mops, rags, buckets, gloves, etc)

29 Handwashing Facilities  Providing handwashing facilities is easier said than done, especially in a large area.  Work with your team to chose the right technology (jug, tippy tap, etc) and establish a system of keeping water available

30 Common Mistakes of WatSan Staff  “I think the people want…”  “In the last place I worked in we did this, so I am sure it will work here.”  “I am sure the people will clean the latrines themselves.”

31  Standard-size squatting plate (1200 mm x 800 mm) Emergency Response Equipment for Sanitation

32 Resource Materials