1 Austrian RC in Batagram (Pakistan) EQ Operation Day 4: Sanitation in Emergencies RDRT WatSan Training
2 Objective 1.Become a sanitation engineer?? 2.Understand what is sanitation 3.Understand how to select the right option for excreta disposal 4.Be familiar with different technical options for excreta disposal in emergencies 5.Be familiar with the Emergency Response Equipment for sanitation 6.Construct an emergency latrine!
3 Sanitation in Emergency 1.Excreta disposal 2.Solid waste management 3.Waste water management (drainage)
4 What is dangerous about faeces? Primary sanitary barriers Toilets Hand-washing (critical times) Water treatment and water handling Food hygiene
5 Pathogen Die Off Time in faeces
6 How do we do excreta disposal in a emergency? Rapid assessment & planning design Implementation: 1st phase - Immediate action In-depth assessment & planning design Implementation: 2 nd phase - medium term action Monitoring
7 Sphere Standards and Indicators SPHERE standard 1: access to and numbers of toilets People have sufficient numbers of toilets, sufficiently close to their dwellings to allow them rapid, safe and acceptable access at all times of the day and night.
8 Sphere Standards and Indicators SPHERE standard 2: design and construction People have access to toilets which are designed, constructed and maintained in such a way as to be comfortable, hygienic and safe to use.
9 Selection Criteria Number of people using latrine and location of people Communal or family Elderly/disabled population Design life: - will population move? Space Comfort and community desires Tradition of latrine use in community Privacy Use of water/reuse of faeces - availability of water? Anal cleansing material (amount of water used) Menstruation Availability of local materials and tools
10 Selection Criteria (cont.) Pit size V = (NxSxD) + 0.5 m of free space x A N = number of users; S = Sludge accumulation (m 3 /person/year); D= design life (years) A= pit-base area (m 2 ) Groundwater Not all designs suitable for high groundwater Usually 99% of pathogens destroyed within 2m of unlined pit in unconsolidated soils if above water table If in saturated zone then contamination spread is HORIZONTAL (usually) up to 15m Soil conditions Soil stability Influence if a pit or soak pit is possible to excavate Watch for effects throughout the seasons Infiltration rate
11 Selection Criteria (cont.) Siting Communal latrines good distance (30m) away from dwellings and down wind if possible Family latrines near to dwelling (5m) Away from water sources (see groundwater) Avoid depressions, water courses that might run with water DISCUSS with community Space for additional latrines Safety and accessibility ( Lighting, Location, Distance, Screening, Design - separate M/W/Children - ) Operation and maintenance Construction of hand washing facilities Time constraints Financial constraints Human Resources
12 Technical options Immediate action 1st phase Acute emergency Open defecation fields Shallow trench latrines Deep trench latrine Shallow family latrines Bucket latrine Packet latrine Chemical toilets Control free defecation Communal facilities Community consultation Medium term action 2 nd phase stabilized emergency Simple pit latrine VIP latrine Pour-flush latrines EcoSan (Ecological Sanitation) Borehole latrine Septic tanks Family facilities Community participation disaster 4-6 weeks1-6 months
13 Latrine components - basics Privacy and dignity Roof is essential in areas with high rainfall Door / spiral-shaped entrance < 1 m2 is recommended Frame: timber, PVC pipe, Fitted with plastic sheeting, local materials User’s involvement in design Superstructure Support weight of a person Easy to clean Prefabricated or manufactured locally Concrete, wood, ferrocement or plastic Slab Pit 1 m across and 3 m deep (minimum 0.9 m diameter) Best shape: circular The top 0.5 m of a pit should be always lined (but depend of soil) Different pit lining material: locally available
14 Communal or Family? Family facilities: Usually designed and built by the users (with or without designs, tools and materials provided by others). They may be used by several families. The latrine belongs to the family / ies. Communal facilities: Managed by the community as a shared resource (market, school, etc.). The facility belong to the community.
15 Sanitation Ladder
16 Open Defecation fields WHEREVER POSSIBLE AVOID DEFECATION FIELDS AND INSTALL TRENCH LATRINES AS FIRST OPTION
17 Shallow trench latrine
18 Deep trench latrine
19 Pit latrine and VIP
20 Pour-Flush latrine
26 Exercise - latrine design In your group think about the positive and negative aspects of this design (10 min) Source: OXFAM. Photographer: Saira Raza
27 Which one would you use?
28 Operation and Maintenance Cleaning: Supervision + Equipment + Training Communal latrines: Need for employing some members to clean and maintain Ownership: Involving population in design, siting, construction, maintenance, etc. Family latrines Cleaning materials: cleaning kit (disinfectants, mops, rags, buckets, gloves, etc)
29 Handwashing Facilities Providing handwashing facilities is easier said than done, especially in a large area. Work with your team to chose the right technology (jug, tippy tap, etc) and establish a system of keeping water available
30 Common Mistakes of WatSan Staff “I think the people want…” “In the last place I worked in we did this, so I am sure it will work here.” “I am sure the people will clean the latrines themselves.”
31 Standard-size squatting plate (1200 mm x 800 mm) Emergency Response Equipment for Sanitation
32 Resource Materials