In areas where a distribution system is lacking, drinking water is often obtained from sources such as wells, springs, or rivers. These sources are not treated or purified, so the water may contain contaminants that can make people sick. To mitigate this risk, people in these areas may use methods such as boiling, filtering, or adding chemicals like chlorine to make the water safe to drink. However, without a distribution system, accessing clean drinking water can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly for those who live far from a water source. Additionally, without proper management and maintenance, these sources can become contaminated, leading to widespread water-borne illnesses.
Examples of the socio-economic effects of water supplies lacking distribution networks can include reduced access to clean water, leading to health problems and decreased productivity, as well as increased poverty and social inequality.
Here are some sources that discuss these effects and provide examples of new projects in 20 cities:
"Water Scarcity and Poverty: Barker, R; van Koppen, B.; Shah, T. 2000. A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty: Achievements and challenges for water resources management. Co lombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (lWMI). / water scarcity / poverty / water resources development / groundwater management /food security / irrigated farming/ agricultural production / tube well irrigation / sustainability / South Asia / Africa south of Sahara! (Link: https://publications.iwmi.org/pdf/H026191.pdf)
"Expanding access to water and sanitation: new projects in 20 cities" by Water Project (Link: https://thewaterproject.org/expanding-access-to-water-and-sanitation-new-projects-in-20-cities)
Why American cities are struggling to supply safe drinking water It's not in a developing nation. It's here in the United States. Jackson, Mississippi. (https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/why-american-cities-are-struggling-to-supply-safe-drinking-water)
Programme Water scarcity Addressing the growing lack of available water to meet children’s needs. (https://www.unicef.org/wash/water-scarcity)